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Acoustic Guided System for Positing of Endotracheal Tube During Ventilation

Prof. Prashant B. Patel

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1) Objectives:

The main objective of this seminar is to define respiratory system and explain its importance to multicellular organisms. Describe the ways that oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the bloodstream and to study available and modern techniques for position measurement of endotracheal tubes. The need for Instrumentation is to make proper and accurate measurement of various parameters related to medical science. All the measurement mainly depends on the detection, acquisition and display of biological signal.

2) Respiration:

Respiration is a vital function of all living organisms. The exchange of gases in any biological process is termed as Respiration. Respiration is to get Oxygen Into the Body and Waste Gases Out of the Body. To sustain life, the human body must take in oxygen, which combines with carbon, hydrogen, and various nutrients to produce heat and energy for the performance of work. As a result of this processes of Metabolism, which takes place in the cell, a certain amount of water is produced along with the principle waste product, carbon dioxide. The entire process of taking in oxygen from environment, transporting the oxygen to the cells, removing the carbon dioxide from the cells, and exhausting this waste product to the atmosphere must be considered with in the definition of respiration. It is the function of the Respiratory System to Transport gases to and from the circulatory system.

3) Level of Respiration:

Respiration occurs at different levels: The first is pulmonary ventilation in which air is moved into and out of the body. The second, external respiration, involves the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the blood. The third is internal respiration, which involves the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the cellular or tissue level. Finally, cellular respiration is the utilization of oxygen to produce energy, which also produces carbon dioxide as a by-product.

4) Physiology of Respiration System:

Inspiration and expiration are accomplished by the creation of pressure gradients.

  1. The respiratory musculature is relaxed, atmospheric pressure equals chest cavity pressure, and so no air movement occurs.
  2. The external intercostals and diaphragm contract, moving the ribs up and out and the diaphragm down, respectively. This muscle action enlarges the chest cavity laterally, anterioposterially, and downward, increasing the volume. As a result chest cavity pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure and air flows in.
  3. The inspiratory muscles relax, and the chest cavity recoils, creating a pressure higher than atmospheric pressure. Air flows out. The respiratory cycle then begins again.

The main job of the Respiratory System is to get oxygen into the body and waste gases out of the body.

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