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MN & CA: Biomarkers for Genotoxicity

Furquan Ahmad Ansari, Iqbal Ahmad, Mohd. Yunus and Qamar Rahman

Page 3

Topics

Scoring Criteria for micronuclei (MN): (Fenech, 2003)

Morphologically micronuclei are identical but smaller than the main nuclei. These shows the following characteristics:

  • Round or oval in shape.
  • Non-refractile so, easily distinguished from staining particles.
  • Not linked or connected to the main nuclei.
  • May touch but not overlap the main nuclei and micronuclear boundary should be distinguishable from the nuclear boundary.
  • Same staining intensity of the main nuclei but occasionally staining may be more intense.
  • Micronuclei are chromatin-containing structure in the cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane without any detectable link to the cell nucleus (Schiffmann and DeBoni, 1991).

References:

  1. Cortyman, R. I., Heddlem J. A., (1976). The production of micronuclei from chromosome aberration in irradicated cultures of human lymphocytes. Mutat. Res. 41: 321 – 332.
  2. Due, K. X., Ding, B. Y., Cai, Y. Y., Sun, Y, J., Zhou, P., Ma, G. J., and Wang, S., (1984). A study of micronucleus test by human skin puncture. Zool. Res. 5: 225 – 260.
  3. Fenech M (1993). The cytokinesis blocks micronucleus technique. A detailed description on the method and its application to genotoxicity studies in human Population. Mutat. Res. (285) 35-44.
  4. Fenech, M., (2003). The cytokinesis-block micronucleus technique: a detailed description of the method and its application to genotoxic studies in human populations. Mutat. Res. 285: 35 – 44.
  5. Fenech, M., and Morley, A. A., (1985a). Measurement of micronuclei in human lymphocytes. Mutat. Res. 148: 29 – 36.
  6. Fenech, M., and Morley, A. A., (1985b). The effect of donor age on spontaneous and induced micronuclei. Mutat. Res. 148: 99 – 105.
  7. Lando, C., Hagmar, L., Bonnassi, S., (1998). Biomarkers of cytogenetic damage in human and risk of cancer. The European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Ehalth. Med. Lav. 89: 124 – 131.
  8. Moorhead PS, Nowell PC, Mellman WJ, Battips DM, Hungerford DA (1960). Chromosome preparations of leukocytes cultured from human peripheral blood. Exp. Cell Res. (20) 613-616.
  9. Mossman B T, Bignon J, Corn M, Seaton A, and Gee J B L. Asbestos: scientific developments and implications for public policy. Science. 1990; 247: 294 – 301.
  10. Okayasu, R., Takahashi, S., Yamada, S., Hi, T.K., and Ullrich, R. L., (1999). Asbestos and DNA double strand breaks, Cancer Res. 59: 298 – 300.
  11. Rahman, Q., Dopp, E., Lohani, M., and Sciffmann, D., (2000). Occupational and environmental factors enhancing the genotoxicity of asbestos. Inhala. Toxico: 12: 157 – 165.
  12. Ramanathan, A.L., and Subramanian, M., (2001). Present status of asbestos mining and related health problems in India – a Survey. Ind. Health. 39: 309 – 315.
  13. Schiffmann, D., and DeBoni, U., (1991). Dislocation of chromatin elements in prophase induced by diethylstilbestrol: a novel mechnism by which micronuclei can arise. Mutat. Res. 246: 113 – 122.

Furquan Ahmad Ansari, Iqbal Ahmad, Mohd. Yunus and Qamar Rahman

Lucknow-226 001
E-mail: [email protected]

Mohd. Yunus – Dean, Department of Environmental Science,
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University
(A Central University)


Lucknow-226 001 E-mail: [email protected] Mohd. Yunus - Dean, Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)

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