The history of broken spine with paralysis of limbs is bleak. There was no hope of reversing paralysis due to spinal cord injury. The hopelessness and helplessness experienced by patient and doctor until the present time has been expressed by the writer of the Edwin Smith surgical papyrus in 1700 BC when he indicated that it was an ailment not to be treated. There was no hope of stabilizing broken spine to prevent further paralysis or complications that soon took the life of paralyzed person. Ambroise Par’e (1510-1590) paraphrased the Edwin Smith papyrus by writing: By symptoms of numbness and palsy of the limbs and the Urine and excrement coming against there will and Knowledge, you may foretell that death is at hand for Reason that spinal marrow is hurt. Having made such a Prognostique, you may make an incision and take forth The Splinters of the broken vertebra in cases where the neural Arch was injured, which are driven in and press the spinal Marrow and nerves thereof.
Spinal injuries is one of the most disabling conditions, which can afflict mankind. It not only physically disables the individual, but also shatters the individual and his whole family psycho-socially and economically. If not given proper comprehensive management, many of them succumb to the fatal complications(respiratory and urinary tract infections, bed sores). Disability due to spinal cord injury is estimated at between 20 per million of population. At this rate, there would be around 18,000 fresh spinal cord injured patients added every year. In India majority of patients sustain these injuries due to fall from a height but with increasing use of motor vehicles and poor road conditions now more number of patients suffer these injuries due to road traffic accidents. What is more disturbing in case of spinal cord injuries is available facilities are grossly inadequate. This highlights the urgency and necessity of taking very far reaching and urgent measures for the benefit of these patients. Creation of an appropriate institutional infrastructure is an absolutely necessary. This has become all the more important with the enactment of the persons with disabilities act, 1995, under which the Central as well as the States Governments have a number of specific obligations to provide various services to the disabled. With this background in mind Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Govt. of India and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Italy is planning to set up four regional spinal cord injury centers in India one each in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. The objectives of these Centers apart from comprehensive care of spinal cord injured is to create awareness that the disabled can be productive, if given opportunities and support and to cope up with problems of daily living and relieve family members of the burden of constantly looking after them. Apart from Government support it is emphasized that role of Non Government Organization is vital to render necessary support to disabled persons. Untill about four decades ago the outcome was death in 85% of cases while few lingered in institutions from which as many medical personnel as possible kept away. But today it is proved beyond doubt that this pessimism is unfounded. The present position is exactly the opposite, optimisim, complications reduced, healthy and productive future. if they have good upper limbs and are intelligent they can be assured of an ability to walk though perhaps with appliances; they will gain complete 24 hours control of bowel and bladder; and they will earn there own living and lead an almost normal life. Surely this is an amazing reversal of attitude; a reversal now generally accepted and acknowledged. Unlike the sole survivor of traumatic paraplegia from the first world war, of the 4000 American soldiers paralysed from spinal cord injury in the second world war, more than 2000 survived and of these, 80 percent became able to walk and hold down jobs. Today we are able to diagnose spinal cord injury accurately with x-ray studies, computed tomography (CT Scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The accurate diagnosis of fractured spine and the identification of degree of paralysis have lead to philosophy of stabilization of broken spine by operative means either from front and back with special metal implants to prevent further damage to spinal cord. Finally we are able to prevent the complications of recumbency ( bed sores, urinary infection,) that in the past quickly claimed the lives of many patients with paralysis due to fractured spine.