Patient-to-patient spread of HIV infection is usually by an indirect route. This transmission can occur through contaminated needles, syringes and instruments.
Patients can also be infected when they receive contaminated blood or blood products.
Although theoretically this is possible, however, chances of it occurring are almost nil. Thus, HIV infected health care workers are not considered a risk to patients during routine work activities.
Infection control in health care setting consists of
Hands and other parts of the body that have been contaminated with blood and body fluids must be washed thoroughly with soap and water. Hands should also be washed immediately after removal of protective gloves and in between handling of patients.
Health care workers should wear gloves for all direct contact with blood and body fluids. When gloves are not available, other methods should be used to prevent direct contact with blood; for example, forceps, towel gauze or, if these are not availale, any material such as a plant leaf may be employed to hold a blood stained needle or syringe in rural conditions. If gloves are not disposable, they should be disinfected, washed and sterilized after contact with each patient. When injuries from sharp instruments are possible e.g. when they are being cleaned, extra-heavy duty (rubber) gloves should be used and the instruments should be handled with extreme care.
During procedures in which there may be splashing of blood e.g. during surgery or child birth, the eyes nose and mouth should be protected with a face shield or mask and eye glasses. Suitable plastic sheet should be worn inside gowns.
Although HIV has been recovered from saliva, the virus is present in very small numbers, less than 1 virus per millitires (ml). There is no conclusive evidence that saliva can be involved in HIV transmission. Always create barrier by using gauze piece while giving mouth to mouth resuscitation.
In case of a blood/body fluid spill do the following: