If above precautions are always strictly observed, the risk of transmission of HIV through injections and other skin piercing procedures can be greatly minimized.
Sterilization is a process of freeing an article from all living organisms including bacterial, fungal spores and viruses. The most dependable method of sterilization in health care setting is moist heat (steam) under pressure utilizing different types of autoclaves.
A high level of sterilization can be achieved instruments at a temp. of 121 oC at 15 Ibs/sq inch pressure for 15-20 minutes in specially modified pressure cooker (WHO/UNICEF type). Remember all skin and mucous membrane piercing instruments needles, lancets, scalpels, scissors etc.) and equipment coming in contact with blood and mucous membrance must be sterilized before use.
High level of disinfection is a process of destroying all micro organism, however, some spores may survive particularly if initially present in large numbers. This can be achieved by:
Completely immersing instruments in boiling water for 10 minutes. This is a simple and reliable method of freeing all article from most of the pathogenic microorganisms in situations where sterilization by autoclaving is not possible.
Following chemicals are approved for use as ‘hospital disinfectants’ in recommended dilution to achieve high level of disinfection. Commonly used disinfectants are:
All the linen soiled with blood/body fluid should preferably be dipped into 1% household bleach/sodium hypochlorite for half and hour before washing.
Management of parenteral and mucous membrane exposure of personnel to blood and body fluid: In case of an accidental exposure with contaminated blood or body fluids the following care should be taken:
In the health care setting all the potentially infected waste should be appropriately disposed off. Safaiwalas should always wear gloves and apron when handling waste.
The infected waste in Health care setting can be disposed off by:
1. Burning-Incineration is a sophisticated method of burning the waste.
2. Deep Burial with bleach or lime.
|Waste||Method of Disposal|
|1. Liquid wastes, blood fluids, Suction fluids, excretions secretions, placenta||Should be buried in deep pit by covering with blenching powder or lime.|
|2. Soild wastes, dressing, laboratory and pathology wastes, menstrual pads||Burning Deep Burial|